Bermudagrass – Cynodon dactylon An aggressive warm-season perennial grass that produces both rhizomes and stolons and is capable of forming a turf or mat of fine leaves. It is very invasive in cool-season grasses.
Clover – Trifolium repens The jury is not totally out on the values of clover. Many people believe that the clover keeps the rabbits from eating other plants. Clover can be used for a cover crop, as a nitrogen fixer. Clover may be used as a substitute for turfgrass. Of the 15 species of clover in Missouri, the type that is problematic in grass is the White Clover, which grows very close to the ground and avoids mowing. It spreads by its underground and above-ground stems. The seeds are very hard and may live in the soil for many years.
Common Blue Violet – Viola sororia A perennial from short rhizomes with heart-shaped leaves and blue or purple flowers, most commonly 2 to 5 inches tall. Leaves arise from a basal crown and occur on long petioles. Leaves are also hairless and have rounded teeth along the margins. Common blue violet is commonly found in lawns and garden beds.
Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) Everyone knows the common dandelion! Dandelion is one of the most common and problematic weeds of lawns throughout the US. The bright yellow flowers on this cool-season perennial produce puffy white seed heads that can be carried great distances on wind currents. Even though they are most visible in the spring, fall is the best time to treat.
Creeping Charlie or Ground Ivy – Glechoma hederacea Ground ivy is a creeping square stemmed warm-season perennial that will root at its nodes and form dense patches. It can crowd out desirable grasses, especially in shady, moist areas. They produce rhizomes.
Yellow Nutsedge – Cyperus esculentus This perennial weed, Yellow Nutsedge, often called nutgrass, is a member of the sedge family. It is one of the most prevalent species that infests turfgrass and garden beds. It is neither a grass nor a broadleaf weed. Nutsedge can be recognized by their triangular-shaped stem. They grow from rhizomes and tubers and may reach 2-1/2 feet in height. Although classified as a warm-season perennial, it begins growth early in the growing season. Nutsedge can be one of the most difficult lawn weeds to eradicate. It forms nutlets about the size of a kernel of wheat in the soil. The nutlets grow new plants and will also produce seeds if not mowed. Hand removal of these plants is not effective because the nutlets remain in the soil. Halosulfuron is a nutsedge herbicide that is much more effective than those used in the past. Light infestations can often be controlled with one application. Heavier infestations may require a repeat application.
Yellow Woodsorrel – Oxalis stricta This weed resembles clover and often behaves as a summer annual. The flowers are small and have bright yellow petals. The seeds are dispersed from capsules by explosively ejecting up to 13 feet from the parent plant.